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, 84 (23), 12458-62

Sequences From Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: The Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More Than 40 to 50 Million Years Old

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Sequences From Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: The Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More Than 40 to 50 Million Years Old

Vladimir A Belyi et al. J Virol.

Abstract

Vertebrate genomic assemblies were analyzed for endogenous sequences related to any known viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes. Numerous high-confidence examples related to the Circoviridae and two genera in the family Parvoviridae, the parvoviruses and dependoviruses, were found and were broadly distributed among 31 of the 49 vertebrate species tested. Our analyses indicate that the ages of both virus families may exceed 40 to 50 million years. Shared features of the replication strategies of these viruses may explain the high incidence of the integrations.

Figures

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.
Phylogenetic tree of vertebrate organisms and history of ssDNA virus integrations. Times of integration of ancestral dependoviruses (yellow icosahedrons), parvoviruses (blue icosahedrons), and circoviruses (triangles) are approximate.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
Schematics illustrating the structure and organization of Parvoviridae and Circoviridae genomes and origins of several of the longest-integrated ancestral viral sequences found in vertebrates. Integrations were aligned to the Dependovirus adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2), the Parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM), and the Circovirus porcine circovirus 1 (PCV-1). The inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences in the Dependovirus and Parvovirus genomes are depicted on an expanded scale. A linear representation of the circular genome of PCV-1 is shown with the 10-bp stem-loop structure on an expanded scale. Horizontal lines beneath the maps indicate the lengths of similar sequences that could be identified by BLAST. The numbers indicate the locations of amino acids in the viral proteins where the sequence similarities in the endogenous insertions start and end. The actual ancestral virus-derived integrated sequences may extend beyond the indicated regions.
FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.
Hairpin structure of the inverted terminal repeat of adeno-associated virus 2 (left) and a candidate degraded hairpin structure located close to the 5′ end of the mlEDLG-1 integration in microbats (right). Structures and mountain plots were generated using default parameters of the RNAfold program (5), with nucleotide coloring representing base-pairing probabilities: blue is below average, green is average, and red is above average. Mountain plots represent hairpin structures based on minimum free energy (mfe) calculations and partition function (pf) calculations, as well as the centroid structure (5). Height is expressed in numbers of nucleotides; position represents nucleotide.

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