Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a highly curable disease with excellent complete remission and long-term survival rates. However, the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) is being reported with increasing frequency in patients successfully treated for APL. We attempted to clarify the different clinical features and hematologic findings between t-MN and relapse cases, and to identify gene alterations involved in t-MN. We compared 10 relapse and 11 t-MN cases that developed in 108 patients during their first complete remission from APL. At APL diagnosis, t-MN patients had lower white blood cell counts than did relapse patients (P = .048). Overall survival starting from chemotherapy was significantly worse in t-MN patients than in relapse patients (P = .022). The t-MN cases were characterized as CD34(+)/HLA-DR(+) and PML-RARA(-), and 4 RUNX1/AML1 mutations were detected. T-MN is easily distinguished from APL relapse by evaluating these hematologic features, and it may originate from primitive myeloid cells by chemotherapy-induced RUNX1 mutations.