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Group Dynamics of Zebra and Wildebeest in a Woodland Savanna: Effects of Predation Risk and Habitat Density


Group Dynamics of Zebra and Wildebeest in a Woodland Savanna: Effects of Predation Risk and Habitat Density

Maria Thaker et al. PLoS One.


Background: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR) to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo.

Methodology/principal findings: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density), probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve), and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion.

Conclusions/significance: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the composition of the group, arising from a tradeoff between maximizing resource selection and minimizing predation risk.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Occurrence of groups of wildebeest and zebra in the different habitats of Karongwe Game Reserve.
Shown are the proportion occurrence of groups of wildebeest (n = 133, white bars) and zebra (n = 116, gray bars) with 95% confidence intervals. Proportions of available habitat (black bars) are listed in order of decreasing structural density.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Species-specific group composition across the range of group sizes.
Shown are the number of groups (line) and the proportion of adult males (dark bars),adult females (light bars), and young (white bars) for the range of group sizes of (A) wildebeest and (B) zebra.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Habitat-specific relationship between group size and the probability of encountering lion.
Shown are the regression lines for the relationship between the utilization distribution (UD) of lion and group size of (A) wildebeest and (B) zebra in open scrub (filled circles, solid line) and other habitats (open circles, dashed line).

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