Signal integration in budding yeast

Biochem Soc Trans. 2010 Oct;38(5):1257-64. doi: 10.1042/BST0381257.


A complex signalling network governs the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an array of environmental stimuli and stresses. In the present article, we provide an overview of the main signalling system and discuss the mechanisms by which yeast integrates and separates signals from these sources. We apply our classification scheme to a simple semi-quantitative model of the HOG (high-osmolarity glycerol)/FG (filamentous growth)/PH (pheromone) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling network by perturbing its signal integration mechanisms under combinatorial stimuli of osmotic stress, starvation and pheromone exposure in silico. Our findings include that the Hog1 MAPK might act as a timer for filamentous differentiation, not allowing morphological differentiation before osmo-adaptation is sufficiently completed. We also see that a mutually exclusive decision-making between pheromone and osmo-response might not be taken on the MAPK level and transcriptional regulation of MAPK targets. We conclude that signal integration mechanisms in a wider network including the cell cycle have to be taken into account for which our framework might provide focal points of study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / genetics
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases