Towards the definition of the best management and prognostic factors of teratoma with malignant transformation: a single-institution case series and new proposal

BJU Int. 2011 Apr;107(7):1088-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09705.x. Epub 2010 Sep 24.


Objective: • To investigate the optimal management and prognostic factors of patients with malignant transformation (MT) in germ-cell tumour (GCT) by re-evaluating Institutional series.

Patients and methods: • Patients with an MT within GCT have been identified from the institutional database and all slides have been reviewed by the referral pathologist.

Results: • From June 1982 to October 2009, 48 patients and 13 somatic histologies have been identified. Twelve patients presented with stage I, 12 with stage II and 24 with stage III disease. All stage I patients are alive and disease-free after a median follow up of 88 months (interquartile range 38-103). • Of the 36 metastatic cases, 11 underwent GCT-oriented chemotherapy plus surgery and seven of them are currently disease-free. Three patients underwent MT-chemotherapy, one relapsed and is still under treatment. Overall, 17 patients relapsed (35%) and three of them have been rescued by GCT-chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 100% for stage I, 80% (95% CI 40-94) for stage II and 44% (95% CI 19-67) for stage III patients. Stage III disease at MT, incomplete surgical removal and primitive neuroectodermal tumours plus adenocarcinoma histologies were significant adverse prognostic factors for survival.

Conclusions: • New insights emerged into the impact of histology and chemotherapy on MT. The development of an adenocarcinoma component as well as the possible efficacy of a GCT-tailored chemotherapy in a multimodal strategy are addressed for the first time, while disease extent at transformation and extent of radical surgery are confirmed as significant prognosticators. • An international web database for registration of all cases of MT worldwide is presented.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic* / pathology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neuroectodermal Tumors / pathology
  • Neuroectodermal Tumors / therapy*
  • Orchiectomy*
  • Prognosis
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Teratoma / pathology
  • Teratoma / secondary
  • Teratoma / therapy*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome