In recent years there has been an increased interest in the function of inhibitory interneurons. In the cerebellum this interest has been paired with successes in obtaining recordings from these neurons in vivo and genetic manipulations to probe their function during behavioral tasks such as motor learning. This review focuses on a synthesis of recent findings on the computational properties that these neurons confer to the cerebellar circuitry and on their recently discovered capacity for plasticity and learning in vivo. Since the circuitry of the cerebellar cortex is relatively well-defined, the specificity with which the potential roles of these interneurons can be described will help to guide new avenues of research on the functions of interneurons in general.
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