The mammalian target of rapamycin: linking T cell differentiation, function, and metabolism

Immunity. 2010 Sep 24;33(3):301-11. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.09.002.

Abstract

In the two-signal model of T cell activation, the outcome of antigen recognition is determined by the integration of multiple cues in the immune microenvironment. mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved PI3-kinase family member that plays a central role in integrating environmental cues in the form of amino acids, energy, and growth factors. Recently, an increasingly important role for mTOR in directing T cell activation and differentiation has become apparent. Here we review recent findings demonstrating the ability of mTOR to interpret signals in the immune microenvironment and program the generation of CD4(+) effector versus regulatory T cells, the generation of CD8(+) effector versus memory cells, T cell trafficking, and T cell activation versus anergy. The key theme to emerge from these studies is that the central role of mTOR provides a direct link between T cell metabolism and function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology*
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Proteins
  • T-Lymphocytes / cytology
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Transcription Factors / physiology

Substances

  • CRTC2 protein, human
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • MTOR protein, human
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases