Phospholipid scramblase 1 is secreted by a lipid raft-dependent pathway and interacts with the extracellular matrix protein 1 in the dermal epidermal junction zone of human skin

J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 26;285(48):37823-37. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.136408. Epub 2010 Sep 24.


We examined the interaction of ECM1 (extracellular matrix protein 1) using yeast two-hybrid screening and identified the type II transmembrane protein, PLSCR1 (phospholipid scramblase 1), as a binding partner. This interaction was then confirmed by in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments, and additional pull-down experiments with GST-tagged ECM1a fragments localized this interaction to occur within the tandem repeat region of ECM1a. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed a partial overlap of ECM1 and PLSCR1 in human skin at the basal epidermal cell layer. Moreover, in human skin equivalents, both proteins are expressed at the basal membrane in a dermal fibroblast-dependent manner. Next, immunogold electron microscopy of ultrathin human skin sections showed that ECM1 and PLSCR1 co-localize in the extracellular matrix, and using antibodies against ECM1 or PLSCR1 cross-linked to magnetic immunobeads, we were able to demonstrate PLSCR1-ECM1 interaction in human skin extracts. Furthermore, whereas ECM1 is secreted by the endoplasmic/Golgi-dependent pathway, PLSCR1 release from HaCaT keratinocytes occurs via a lipid raft-dependent mechanism, and is deposited in the extracellular matrix. In summary, we here demonstrate that PLSCR1 interacts with the tandem repeat region of ECM1a in the dermal epidermal junction zone of human skin and provide for the first time experimental evidence that PLSCR1 is secreted by an unconventional secretion pathway. These data suggest that PLSCR1 is a multifunctional protein that can function both inside and outside of the cell and together with ECM1 may play a regulatory role in human skin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dermis / enzymology
  • Dermis / metabolism*
  • Epidermis / enzymology
  • Epidermis / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Matrix / enzymology
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / chemistry
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Junctions / enzymology
  • Intercellular Junctions / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / enzymology
  • Keratinocytes / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Phospholipid Transfer Proteins / genetics
  • Phospholipid Transfer Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Protein Transport
  • Secretory Pathway*
  • Skin / enzymology
  • Skin / metabolism*


  • ECM1 protein, human
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • PLSCR1 protein, human
  • Phospholipid Transfer Proteins