Actinomycete strain RB72(T) was isolated from woodland bluff soil in northern Alabama, USA, and shown to produce a broad spectrum bacteriocin. Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strain was determined to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis of the near-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it differed from those of the described streptomycetes available in public databases. The distinctive white aerial hyphae and lack of sporulation suggest a deficiency in the whi pathway of the organism. A combination of substrate utilization patterns, morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the affiliation of strain RB72(T) to the genus Streptomyces and enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain RB72(T) from closely related reference strains. Strain RB72(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces scopuliridis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB72(T) ( = DSM 41917(T) = NRRL B-24574(T)).