Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences metabolic diseases and perhaps antiretroviral therapy (ART) complications. We explored associations between European mtDNA haplogroups and metabolic changes among A5142 participants.
Methods: Seven hundred and fifty-seven ART-naive patients were randomized to one of three class-sparing ART regimens including efavirenz and/or lopinavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Nonrandomized NRTIs included stavudine, tenofovir, or zidovudine, each with lamivudine. Fasting lipid profiles and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Nine European mtDNA haplogroups were determined for 231 self-identified non-Hispanic white individuals. Metabolic changes from baseline to 96 weeks were analyzed by haplogroup.
Results: Median age was 39 years, 9% were women, and 37, 32, and 30 were randomized to NRTI-containing regimens with either efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir, and an NRTI-sparing regimen, respectively. Among NRTI-containing regimens, 51% included zidovudine, 28% tenofovir, and 21% stavudine. Compared with other haplogroups, mtDNA haplogroup I (N = 10) had higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol [160 mg/dl (interquartile range 137-171) vs. 120 mg/dl (104-136); P = 0.005], a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol over 96 weeks [-14% (-20 to 6) vs. +25% (8 to 51); P < 0.001], tended to have more baseline extremity fat, and had more extremity fat loss by DEXA [-13% (-13 to 12) vs. +9% (-13 to 26); P = 0.08] and lipoatrophy (50 vs. 20%; P = 0.04). Haplogroup W (N = 5; all randomized to NRTI-sparing regimens) had the greatest increase in extremity fat [+35.5% (26.8 to 54.9); P = 0.02].
Conclusions: Lipids and extremity fat were associated with European mtDNA haplogroups in this HIV-infected population. These preliminary results suggest that mitochondrial genomics may influence metabolic parameters before and during ART.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00050895.