Electromagnetic field (EMF) can affect cells due to biochemical change followed by a change in level of ions trafficking through membrane. We aimed to investigate possible changes in some elements in costa of rats exposed to long-term extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF). Rats were exposed to 100 and 500 μT ELF-MF, which are the safety standards of public and occupational exposure for 2 h/day during 10 months. At the end of the exposure period, the samples of costa were taken from the rats exposed to ELF-MF and sham. The levels of elements were measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Ca levels decreased in the ELF-500 exposure group in comparison to sham group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant decrease was found in Mg levels in the ELF-500 exposure group in comparison to sham and ELF-100 exposure groups (p < 0.05). Zn levels were found to be lower in the ELF-500 exposure group than those in the sham and ELF-100 exposure groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were determined between groups in terms of the levels of P, Cu and Fe. In conclusion, it can be maintained that long-term ELF-MF exposure can affect the chemical structure and metabolism of bone by changing the levels of some important elements such as Ca, Zn and Mg in rats.