Clinical significance of GPR56, transglutaminase 2, and NF-κB in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer Invest. 2011 Jan;29(1):42-8. doi: 10.3109/07357907.2010.512597. Epub 2010 Sep 27.


Proteins do not operate as individual units, and components of intracellular canonical pathways often cross talk in tumor genesis. We hypothesized that G-protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56), transglutaminase (TG2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) may collaborate in interconnected pathways and contribute to the aggressive behavior of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical analysis of GPR56, TG2, and NF-κB was carried out using ESCC tissue microarrays. Immunostaining of all the three proteins revealed a significant increase in their expression in ESCCs as compared with normal epithelia and correlated with their concomitant expression. A significant correlation between GPR56, TG2, and NF-κB was observed that correlated with nodal metastasis and tumor invasion in ESCCs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / chemistry*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • India
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B / analysis*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Prognosis
  • Protein Glutamine gamma Glutamyltransferase 2
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / analysis*
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Transglutaminases / analysis*
  • Up-Regulation


  • ADGRG1 protein, human
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • NF-kappa B
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Protein Glutamine gamma Glutamyltransferase 2
  • Transglutaminases
  • GTP-Binding Proteins