Twelve tips for teaching reflection at all levels of medical education

Med Teach. 2011;33(3):200-5. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2010.507714. Epub 2010 Sep 27.


Background: Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals a diversity of pedagogical approaches and educational goals related to teaching reflection.

Aim: The following tips outline an approach to the design, implementation, and evaluation of reflection in medical education.

Method: The method is based on the available literature and the author's experience. They are organized in the sequence that an educator might use in developing a reflective activity.

Results: The 12 tips provide guidance from conceptualization and structure of the reflective exercise to implementation and feedback and assessment. The final tip relates to the development of the faculty member's own reflective ability.

Conclusion: With a better understanding of the conceptual frameworks underlying critical reflection and greater advance planning, medical educators will be able to create exercises and longitudinal curricula that not only enable greater learning from the experience being reflected upon but also develop reflective skills for life-long learning.

MeSH terms

  • Education, Medical / methods*
  • Emotions
  • Environment
  • Ethics, Medical
  • Feedback
  • Humans
  • Self-Assessment*
  • Teaching / methods*