The mammalian oocyte possesses powerful reprogramming factors, which can reprogram terminally differentiated germ cells (sperm) or somatic cells within a few cell cycles. Although it has been suggested that use of oocyte-derived transcripts may enhance the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, the reprogramming factors in oocytes are undetermined, and even the identified proteins composition of oocytes is very limited. In the present study, 7,000 mouse oocytes at different developmental stages, including the germinal vesicle stage, the metaphase II (MII) stage, and the fertilized oocytes (zygotes), were collected. We successfully identified 2,781 proteins present in germinal vesicle oocytes, 2,973 proteins in MII oocytes, and 2,082 proteins in zygotes through semiquantitative MS analysis. Furthermore, the results of the bioinformatics analysis indicated that different protein compositions are correlated with oocyte characteristics at different developmental stages. For example, specific transcription factors and chromatin remodeling factors are more abundant in MII oocytes, which may be crucial for the epigenetic reprogramming of sperm or somatic nuclei. These results provided important knowledge to better understand the molecular mechanisms in early development and may improve the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.