Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) fibers containing carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanoparticles with different CHA amounts (5, 10 and 15 wt%) were electrospun with the aid of ultrasonic power for dispersing the nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that the distribution of CHA within the CHA/PHBV nanocomposite fibers was homogeneous when the CHA content was 10 wt%. Slight particle agglomeration occurred when the CHA content was 15 wt%. The diameters of the electrospun CHA/PHBV nanocomposite fibers and PHBV polymer fibers were around 3 µm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis further confirmed the presence of CHA in CHA/PHBV nanocomposite fibers. Both PHBV and CHA/PHBV fibrous membranes exhibited similar tensile properties. Compared with PHBV solvent-cast film, the PHBV fibrous membrane was hydrophobic but the incorporation of CHA nanoparticles dramatically enhanced its wettability. In vitro studies revealed that both types of electrospun fibrous membranes (PHBV and CHA/PHBV) supported the proliferation of human osteoblastic cells (SaOS-2). The alkaline phosphatase activity of SaOS-2 cells seeded on the CHA/PHBV fibrous membranes was higher than that of the cells seeded on the PHBV fibrous membranes after 14 days of cell culture. The electrospun CHA/PHBV nanocomposite fibrous membranes show promises for bone tissue engineering applications.