Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public-health problem worldwide. No proven treatments are available for this condition, which is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Only 20% of individuals who survive ICH are independent at 6 months. Hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and anticoagulation are known to be associated with such hemorrhages. No effective preventive therapies exist specifically for CAA-related ICH. The incidence of hypertension-related ICH might be decreasing in some populations with improvements in the treatment of hypertension; however, the incidence of anticoagulant-related ICH is increasing, as the use of anticoagulants rises. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the clinical management of ICH, although in the past 10 years completed medical and surgical clinical trials-examining hemostatic therapy, blood pressure control and/or hematoma evacuation-have refined our understanding of the goals of such management. Ongoing clinical trials, which have built on the lessons of past studies, hold promise for the development of effective, scientifically proven treatments for ICH. In this Review, we discuss clinical trials for ICH that have been completed in the past 10 years, the contributions of these studies to the clinical management of ICH, and the ongoing trials that might further improve clinical care.