In this study, we used electron tomography as well as immunogold labeling to analyze the morphology and distribution of proteins within postsynaptic densities (PSDs) isolated from rats before birth (embryonic day 19) and at postnatal days 2, 21, and 60. Our data provide direct evidence of distinct morphological and compositional differences in PSDs throughout development. Not all PSD components are present at the early stages of development, with a near lack of the scaffolding molecule PSD-95 at E19 and P2. The presence of NR1 and NR2b suggests that PSD-95 is not directly required for clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in PSDs early in development. α-Actinin is abundant by E19, suggesting that it is a core structural component of the PSD. Both α and β isoforms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) are present early on but then rise in labeling density by approximately fourfold by P21. Among all the molecules studied, only calmodulin (CaM) was found in higher abundance early in PSD development and then fell in amount over time. Spatial analysis of the immunogold label shows a nonrandom distribution for all the proteins studied, lending support to the idea that the PSD is systematically assembled in an organized fashion. Morphological data from electron tomography shows that the PSD undergoes major structural changes throughout development.