Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) predicts worse outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One potential mechanism is that IVH predisposes to the development of delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs). No previous studies have evaluated the association between IVH volume (in milliliters) and subsequent development of DINDs or poor outcomes.
Objective: To assess the association between the volume of IVH and the subsequent development of DINDs, delayed cerebral infarction, death, and poor neurological outcomes, specifically among patients with concomitant SAH and IVH.
Methods: We performed a cohort study involving 152 consecutive patients with concomitant SAH and IVH. To determine volume of IVH, we used the IVH Score, shown to correlate well with computerized volumetric assessment. To determine the relative quantity of subarachnoid blood, we applied the SAH Sum Score. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders.
Results: There was no significant association between IVH volume and the development of DINDs or delayed infarction. In contrast, patients with poor neurological outcomes had significantly larger baseline IVH volume (mean, 11.8 mL vs 3.8 mL, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis, IVH volume was an independent predictor of poor outcomes (OR per mL: 1.11 [1.04-1.18]). Patients in the highest quartile for IVH volume were far more likely to progress to poor outcome compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 4.09 [1.32-12.65]). Interobserver agreement in the determination of IVH Score was moderate to good.
Conclusions: IVH volume is an independent predictor of poor neurological outcomes, even after adjusting for the amount of subarachnoid blood. The pathophysiology of this association does not appear to involve an increased risk of DINDs or delayed infarction. Measures aimed at accelerating IVH clearance, such as intraventricular thrombolysis, merit further evaluation.