Synergistic therapeutic effects of 2-methoxyestradiol with either sildenafil or bosentan on amelioration of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;56(5):475-83. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181f215e7.


2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) is a major nonestrogenic metabolite of estradiol. Our previous studies suggest that 2ME, in several models of cardiac and/or vascular injury, strongly inhibits cardiac and vascular remodeling. Furthermore, our most recent study shows that in male rats, 2ME attenuates the development and retards the progression of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and in female rats, 2ME eliminates the exacerbation of PAH and the increased mortality due to ovariectomy. The current standard of care of patients with PAH includes treatment with an endothelin receptor antagonist (eg, bosentan) or a phosphodiesterase5 inhibitor (eg, sildenafil). Moreover, combination therapy is often prescribed. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the efficacy of 2ME (10 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1), 2ME-10) to the effects of bosentan (200 mg/kg; BOS), sildenafil (50 mg/kg; SIL), and their respective combinations with 2ME-10 (2ME + BOS and 2ME + SIL groups, respectively). Treatments were initiated 12 days after administration of MCT (60 mg/kg). Twenty-eight days after MCT administration, right ventricular peak systolic pressure was measured and morphometric analysis was conducted. 2ME exhibited beneficial effects in pulmonary hypertensive animals and had efficacy comparable to that of BOS and SIL. Importantly, combination treatments had favorable effects on survival, vascular remodeling, and inflammatory response, and the 2ME + SIL combination was significantly more efficacious than any other treatment. These results indicate that 2ME is effective in experimental PAH and suggests that 2ME may provide additional therapeutic benefit over existing drugs used for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bosentan
  • Drug Synergism
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Estradiol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Estradiol / pharmacology
  • Estradiol / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / chemically induced
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / pathology
  • Male
  • Monocrotaline
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / drug effects
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / pathology
  • Piperazines / pharmacology
  • Piperazines / therapeutic use*
  • Pulmonary Artery / drug effects
  • Pulmonary Artery / pathology
  • Purines / pharmacology
  • Purines / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacology
  • Sulfonamides / therapeutic use*
  • Sulfones / pharmacology
  • Sulfones / therapeutic use*
  • Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology
  • Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use*


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Piperazines
  • Purines
  • Sulfonamides
  • Sulfones
  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Estradiol
  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
  • Monocrotaline
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Bosentan