Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in North America. Castrate-resistant PCa presents a spectrum of disease ranging from rising PSA levels in the absence of metastases or symptoms and despite androgen-deprivation therapy, to metastases and significant debilitation from cancer symptoms. Castrate-resistant PCa is usually suspected in patients with new symptoms on androgen deprivation therapy, with a rising PSA, or with new evidence of disease on bone scans or computed tomography scans. Institution of treatment and the choice of systemic or local therapy depend on a number of factors. This review discusses the various currently available treatments for patients with castrate-resistant PCa, from secondary hormonal manipulations to options for post-docetaxel systemic therapy.
Keywords: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer; systemic treatment.