Background and objectives: Sugar-sweetened soda is reported to be associated with increased risk for diabetes and albuminuria, but there are currently limited data on how sugar or artificially sweetened soda may be related to kidney function decline.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This study identified 3318 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study with data on soda intake and albuminuria; of these, 3256 also had data on estimated GFR (eGFR) change between 1989 and 2000. Cumulative average beverage intake was derived from the 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998 food frequency questionnaires. Serving categories included <1/mo (referent), 1 to 4/mo, 2 to 6/wk, 1 to 1.9/d, and ≥ 2/d. Microalbuminuria (MA) was considered a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 25 to 355 μg/mg. For kidney function change, the primary outcome was a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR over 11 years; rapid eGFR decline defined as ≥ 3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year was also examined.
Results: Consumption of ≥ 2 servings per day of artificially sweetened (diet) soda was independently associated with eGFR decline ≥ 30% (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.01) and ≥ 3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.55). No increased risk for eGFR decline was observed for <2 servings per day of diet soda. No associations were noted between diet soda and MA or sugar soda and MA or eGFR decline.
Conclusions: Consumption of ≥ 2 servings per day of artificially sweetened soda is associated with a 2-fold increased odds for kidney function decline in women.