Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane protein with cytoplasmic kinase activity that transduces important growth factor signaling from the extracellular milieu to the cell. Given that more than 60% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) express EGFR, EGFR has become an important therapeutic target for the treatment of these tumors. Inhibitors that target the kinase domain of EGFR have been developed and are clinically active. More importantly, such tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are especially effective in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene. More recent trials have suggested that for advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutant tumors, initial therapy with a TKI instead of chemotherapy may be the best choice of treatment. Therefore, mutation testing is mandatory to identify these patients, given that selection based only on clinico-pathologic characteristics is inadequate. We review the role of EGFR mutations in the diagnosis and management of NSCLC.