The pathway from the retina to the brain in mammals provides a well-defined model system for investigation of not only surviving axotomy but also axonal regeneration of injured neurons. Here I introduce our recent works on axonal regeneration in the optic nerve (OpN) of adult cats. Fibers of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) extend beyond the crush site of OpN with injections of a macrophage stimulator (oxidized galectin-1) or a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-39983 or Y-27632) while axonal extension is blocked with injection of saline. Elongation of crushed optic fibers, however, is slowed after 2 weeks. Transplantation of peripheral nerve makes RGCs regenerate their transected axons into a graft but regenerated fibers extend only a few mm in the brain. Effectiveness of combination of the drugs and treatments has to be verified in future.