Hyperglycemia induced increased posttranslational modification of proteins by O-linked-β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been independently implicated in the development of insulin resistance. It is not known whether repertoire of O-GlcNAcylated proteins includes mitochondrial proteins and their altered O-GlcNAcylation impinges on their phosphorylation mediated normal functioning thus contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. We have explored the O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins from myoblast cells under basal (4mM) and high glucose (30mM) conditions using a combination of proteomic approaches. Furthermore, we have assessed the accompanied changes in the phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins. We report that a number of mitochondrial proteins are O-GlcNAcylated under basal condition which is altered under high glucose condition. In addition, we report that exposure to high glucose not only changes the O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins but also changes their phosphorylation profiles. The dynamic and complex interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins was further validated by immunoblot analysis of HSP60, prohibitin, and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 as candidate proteins. O-GlcNAcylation of mitochondrial proteins may play a role in normal functioning of mitochondria. High glucose induced changes in O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
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