Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the main cause of intestinal failure especially in children. The colon is a crucial partner for small intestine adaptation and function in patients who have undergone extensive small bowel resection. However, SBS predisposes the patient to small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), explaining its high prevalence in patients with this disorder. SIBO may significantly compromise digestive and absorptive functions and may delay or prevent weaning from total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Moreover, SIBO may be one of the causes of intestinal failure-associated liver disease, requiring liver transplantation in some cases. Traditional tests for assessing SIBO may be unreliable in SBS patients. Management of SIBO with antibiotic therapy as a first-line approach remains a matter of debate, while other approaches, including probiotics, offer potential based on experimental evidence, though only few data from human studies are available.
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