Influence of cigarette smoke condensate on cariogenic and candidal biofilm formation on orthodontic materials

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Oct;138(4):427-434. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.05.023.


Introduction: An experimental analysis was made to quantify the adherence rates and the biofilm formation capacity of Streptococcus mutans ATCC25175 and Candida albicans SC5314 on orthodontic material surfaces in the presence of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC).

Methods: Metal brackets, bands, acrylic resin, and polyurethane elastic rings were coated with stimulated saliva and submitted to adhesion and biofilm formation tests with and without CSC in a dynamic system.

Results: The CSC increased the adhesion of S mutans ATCC25175 to the acquired pellicle (P <0.05) for bands (4.08 times), acrylic resin (2.89 times), and brackets (3.37 times) and reduced it in polyurethane elastic (2.66 times; P <0.05). S mutans ATCC25175 biofilm biomass was increased by CSC only on brackets (1.60 times; P <0.05). In the presence of CSC, the adhesion of C albicans SC5314 increased (P <0.05) on bands (1.81 times), brackets (9.61 times), elastics (29,133 times), and acrylic resin (177 times). Greater formation of C albicans SC5314 biofilm caused by CSC (P <0.05) was observed on acrylic resin (2.13 times) and brackets (2.32 times).

Conclusions: The results indicated that cigarette tobacco smoke can interfere with the adhesion and biofilm formation of these microorganisms to various orthodontic materials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrylic Resins
  • Adult
  • Bacterial Adhesion
  • Biofilms*
  • Candida albicans / physiology
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Elastomers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Materials Testing
  • Orthodontic Appliances / microbiology*
  • Saliva / microbiology
  • Smoke*
  • Stainless Steel
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Streptococcus mutans / physiology
  • Tobacco*


  • Acrylic Resins
  • Elastomers
  • Smoke
  • Stainless Steel