Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species

Toxicon. 1990;28(12):1377-85. doi: 10.1016/0041-0101(90)90154-y.


Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / etiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / veterinary*
  • Alkaloids / toxicity
  • Anabasine / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Bone and Bones / abnormalities*
  • Cleft Palate / etiology
  • Cleft Palate / veterinary*
  • Female
  • Goat Diseases / etiology*
  • Goats
  • Piperidines / toxicity
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity
  • Plant Poisoning / complications
  • Plant Poisoning / veterinary*
  • Plants, Toxic
  • Pregnancy
  • Pyridines / toxicity
  • Teratogens / toxicity
  • Tobacco


  • Alkaloids
  • Piperidines
  • Plant Extracts
  • Pyridines
  • Teratogens
  • ammodendrine
  • coniine
  • Anabasine
  • gamma-coniceine