We examined dietary and other risk factors for renal adenocarcinoma in a case-control study of 203 incident and 207 prevalent cases and 605 neighborhood controls. Using unconditional logistic regression to control selection biases identified in an adjunct study, we found exposure odds ratios (OR) similar to those from other studies: 1.9 (with a 95% confidence interval (Cl) from 0.8 to 4.4) for smoking 2 packs of cigarettes per day; 3.8 (95% Cl: 0.78-18) for 3 or more packs per day; 1.7 (95% Cl: 0.9-3.2) for women and 1.7 (95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) for men in the highest quintile of relative weight (kg/m2); 2.0 (95% Cl: 1.3-3.1) for northeastern European ancestry; and 2.3 (95% Cl: 1.3-4.1) for history of kidney stones. Incident cases consumed more meats and fewer vegetables than controls: the age-sex-education-adjusted OR for average intake of 85 g (3 oz) of beef per day was 3.4 (95% Cl: 1.6-7.2). Inverse associations were seen for most vegetables. Dietary animal protein, animal fat, and saturated fat, with and without energy adjustment, were weakly associated with disease in unconditional and conditional logistic regressions. Prior hypotheses concerning intake of cholesterol, beta-carotene, preformed vitamin A, and cruciferous vegetables were not corroborated.