The history and development of the NSQIP, from its inception in the Veterans Administration Health System to its implementation within the private sector sponsored by the ACS, documents the growth of a program that has substantially improved the quality of surgical care and has had a considerable influence on the culture of quality improvement in the profession. The success of the ACS NSQIP is the result of providing hospitals with rigorous, clinical data, networking opportunities, and resources to improve their risk-adjusted outcomes. In this manner, the ACS NSQIP challenges its hospitals and health care providers to continually improve the care they provide. In addition to reducing the complications and mortality experienced by patients after surgical procedures, hospitals that participate in the ACS NSQIP have seen the financial rewards of their quality improvement efforts. Continued growth of the ACS NSQIP will facilitate achievement of the primary goal surrounding the current health care reform debate: efficient, high-quality care.