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Review
, 15 (3), 781-94

Multiple Functions of Peroxiredoxins: Peroxidases, Sensors and Regulators of the Intracellular Messenger H₂O₂, and Protein Chaperones

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Review

Multiple Functions of Peroxiredoxins: Peroxidases, Sensors and Regulators of the Intracellular Messenger H₂O₂, and Protein Chaperones

Sue Goo Rhee et al. Antioxid Redox Signal.

Abstract

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue (the peroxidatic Cys) serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. Peroxides oxidize the peroxidatic Cys-SH to Cys-SOH, which then reacts with another cysteine residue (typically the resolving Cys [C(R)]) to form a disulfide that is subsequently reduced by an appropriate electron donor. On the basis of the location or absence of the C(R), Prxs are classified into 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys Prx subfamilies. In addition to their peroxidase activity, members of the 2-Cys Prx subfamily appear to serve as peroxide sensors for other proteins and as molecular chaperones. During catalysis, the peroxidatic Cys-SOH of 2-Cys Prxs is occasionally further oxidized to Cys-SO(2)H before disulfide formation, resulting in inactivation of peroxidase activity. This hyperoxidation, which is reversed by the ATP-dependent enzyme sulfiredoxin, modulates the sensor and chaperone functions of 2-Cys Prxs. The peroxidase activity of 2-Cys Prxs is extensively regulated via tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation, which allows modulation of the local concentration of the intracellular messenger H(2)O(2). Finally, 2-Cys Prxs interact with a variety of proteins, with such interaction having been shown to modulate the function of the binding partners in a reciprocal manner.

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