Resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae is frequently associated with plasmidic resistance determinants that are easily transferred among species. β-Lactamase-mediated resistance is increasingly associated with plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, specifically the CTX-M family of ESBLs, the KPC family of serine carbapenemases, and the VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamases. Although clonal dispersion of resistant isolates was seen initially, more diverse genetic platforms are being observed as variations of mobile elements are transferred worldwide. These enzymes are now appearing in multiple combinations of ESBLs and carbapenemases, thereby conferring resistance to virtually all β-lactam antibiotics.
Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.