This paper assesses whether 2 dimensions of whites' and blacks' attitudes toward race concordance with doctors are associated with past unfair treatment in health care and general racial attitudes, and whether the association varies by race. Using telephone survey data, we find that among blacks, but not whites, more positive attitudes toward race-concordant doctors are associated with past unfair treatment in health care related to doctor race. In addition, we find that among whites, but not blacks, more positive attitudes toward race concordance are associated with negative attitudes toward interracial contact in general. We conclude that these dimensions of blacks' and whites' attitudes toward health care are associated with distinct factors. The findings encourage research on how attitudes formed outside health care, as well as how health care experiences influence attitudes toward health care and how these factors may vary by location in the system of racial inequality.