YqhD: a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Jan;89(2):249-57. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-2912-9. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Abstract

The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcohols / chemistry
  • Alcohols / metabolism*
  • Aldehyde Reductase / chemistry*
  • Aldehyde Reductase / genetics
  • Aldehyde Reductase / metabolism*
  • Aldehydes / chemistry
  • Aldehydes / metabolism
  • Biofuels / analysis*
  • Escherichia coli / chemistry
  • Escherichia coli / enzymology*
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / chemistry*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism*
  • Industrial Microbiology
  • Substrate Specificity

Substances

  • Alcohols
  • Aldehydes
  • Biofuels
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • YqhD protein, E coli