Relationships of mitral annular calcification to cardiovascular risk factors: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec;213(2):558-62. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.08.072. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Abstract

Background: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a fibrous, degenerative calcification of the mitral valve. The relationship between MAC and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is not well defined. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional study to determine which CVD risk factors are independently associated with MAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Methods: MESA includes 6814 women and men ages 45-84 years old without apparent CVD in 4 ethnic groups (12% Chinese, 38% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, and 28% African American). MAC was defined by presence of calcium in the mitral annulus by cardiac computed tomography at enrollment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships between MAC and CVD risk factors.

Results: The overall prevalence of MAC was 9%. The prevalence of MAC was highest in Caucasians (12%), followed by Hispanics (10%), African Americans (7%) and was lowest in Chinese (5%). Characteristics associated with MAC included age (p<0.01), female gender (p<0.01), increased body mass index (BMI) (p=0.03), and former smoking status (p<0.008). The MAC group had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of heart attack (all p<0.001). After adjusting for all variables, age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, and increased BMI remained strongly associated with MAC.

Conclusions: Age, female gender, DM, and increased BMI were significantly associated with MAC. Prevalence of MAC was strongly associated with female gender and increasing age in all ethnicities.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • African Americans
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Atherosclerosis / complications*
  • Calcinosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Calcinosis / epidemiology
  • Calcinosis / ethnology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Diseases / epidemiology
  • Heart Valve Diseases / ethnology*
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed