Memory formation requires changes in gene expression, which are regulated by the activation of transcription factors and by changes in epigenetic factors. Poly[ADP]-ribosylation of nuclear proteins has been postulated as a chromatin modification involved in memory consolidation, although the mechanisms involved are not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity and the poly[ADP]-ribosylation of proteins over a specific time course is required for the changes in synaptic plasticity related to memory stabilization in mice. At the molecular level, histone H1 poly[ADP]-ribosylation was evident in the hippocampus after the acquisition period, and it was selectively released in a PARP-1-dependent manner at the promoters of cAMP response element-binding protein and nuclear factor-κB dependent genes associated with learning and memory. These findings suggest that histone H1 poly[ADP]-ribosylation, and its loss at specific loci, is an epigenetic mechanism involved in the reprogramming of neuronal gene expression required for memory consolidation.