Objective: Verapamil and adenosine are the most common agents used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the relative effectiveness of these drugs and to examine their respective adverse effect profiles.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane database, and international clinical trial registers for randomized controlled trials comparing adenosine (or adenosine compounds) with verapamil for the treatment of PSVT in stable adult patients. The primary outcome was rate of reversion to sinus rhythm. Secondary outcome was occurrence of pooled adverse events. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model (RevMan v5).
Results: Eight trials were appropriate and had the available data. The reversion rate for adenosine was 90.8% (95% CI: 87.3-93.4%) compared with 89.9% for verapamil (95% CI: 86.0-92.9%). The pooled odds ratio for successful reversion was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.63-2.57) favouring adenosine. This was not statistically significant. There was a higher rate of minor adverse effects described with adenosine (16.7-76%) compared with verapamil (0-9.9%). The rate of hypotension was lower with adenosine [0.6% (95% CI: 0.1-2.4%)] compared with verapamil [3.7% (95% CI: 1.9-6.9%)].
Conclusion: Adenosine and verapamil have similar efficacy in treating PSVT. Adenosine has a higher rate of minor adverse effects, and of overall adverse effects, whereas verapamil has a higher rate of causing hypotension. A decision between the two agents should be made on a case-by-case basis and ideally involve informed discussion with the patient where appropriate.