Associated abnormalities of the white matter in patients with agyria-pachygyria complex have rarely been investigated using new imaging modalities like diffusion tensor imaging. The present study evaluated the white matter changes of 9 children with agyria-pachygyria complex using diffusion tensor imaging. Regions of interest were placed in 17 white matter tracts. Compared with normal controls, the axial diffusivity of the genu of the corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, and fornix in patients with agyria-pachygyria complex was decreased. In the subcortical white matter without changes in T2-weighted image, there were significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity and increases in radial diffusivity, indicating significant alterations of the white matter. Since axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity reflect changes in the axon and myelin, respectively, the findings here indicate disturbance in both axonal and myelin development in agyria-pachygyria complex.