Agaricus blazei Murrill, a native mushroom of Brazil, has been reported to be an immunoreactant with anti-tumor effect. There are many reports on the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill; however, the precise mechanism of its effect is not fully understood. In this study, we tried to confirm the anti-tumor effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill against Sarcoma 180 cells in a mouse model and found that an inhibitory effect on tumor growth was induced by peritoneal injection of a freeze-dried, hot water extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (FAG). We noted that there were differences among each sample in terms of anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that this was because some contaminants of FAG were affecting the anti-tumor activity. We evaluated cytokine secretion from mouse peritoneal cells incubated with FAG. While high interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α secretions were observed in response to crude FAG, they were dramatically decreased by the removal of endotoxin from the FAG using an endotoxin-specific polymyxin B-conjugated affinity column. The reductions were synergistically recovered by adding an amount of lipopolysaccharide equivalent to the amount of contaminated endotoxin. Thus, these data suggest that the contaminated endotoxin of Agaricus blazei Murrill may act as an immunomodulator of anti-tumor activity.