The systematic investigation of the peptidic composition of the skin secretion of Phasmahyla jandaia, a phyllomedusine anuran endemic to the southern region of the Espinhaço range in Brazil, is herein reported. By means of de novo interpretation of tandem mass spectrometric data, Edman N-terminal sequencing and similarity searches, 57 peptides - including phylloseptins, dermaseptins stricto sensu, dermatoxins, hyposins, tryptophyllins, caerulein-related, bradykinin-related, bradykinin potentiating, tyrosine-rich, and opioid peptides - were sequenced. Moreover, five peptide families without significant similarity to other known molecules were verified. Differently from most Phyllomedusinae genera, the molecular diversity in the skin of representatives of Phasmahyla remained unprospected until now. Therefore, besides disclosing novel natural variants of number of bioactive peptides, the present study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of biochemical characters of the phyllomedusines.
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