Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: relapse-free survival is determined by karyotype and comorbidities

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011 Jun;17(6):908-15. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.09.018. Epub 2010 Oct 6.


Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers potentially curative therapy for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We evaluated HCT outcomes in 85 patients with CMML, 1.0-69.1 (median 51.7) years of age, with follow-up extending to 19 years. CMML was considered de novo in 71 and secondary in 14 patients. Conditioning regimens were of various intensities. Thirty-eight patients had related (34 HLA identical), and 47 (39 HLA matched) unrelated donors. The source of stem cells was marrow in 32 and peripheral blood progenitor cells in 53 patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II-IV occurred in 72% and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 26% of patients. Relapse incidence was 27% at 10 years. Relapse correlated with increasing scores by the MD Anderson prognostic score (P = .01). The major causes of death were relapse and infections ±GVHD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 38% at 10 years. Mortality was negatively correlated with pre-HCT hematocrit (P = .007), and increased with high-risk cytogenetics (P = .02), higher HCT Comorbidity Index (P = .0008), and increased age (P = .02). WHO classification did not statistically significantly affect outcome. Thus, a proportion of patients with CMML have lasting remissions following allogeneic HCT and appear to be cured of their disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation*
  • Comorbidity
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Graft vs Host Disease / genetics
  • Graft vs Host Disease / immunology*
  • Graft vs Host Disease / mortality
  • Graft vs Host Disease / pathology
  • Histocompatibility Testing
  • Histocompatibility* / genetics
  • Histocompatibility* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Karyotyping
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / immunology
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / mortality
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / pathology
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / therapy*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Organ Failure / immunology*
  • Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Recurrence
  • Remission Induction
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Transplantation Conditioning*
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Treatment Outcome