Lyme borreliosis (LB), synonymous with the often-used term Lyme disease, is an infectious disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. LB is the most frequent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern Hemisphere. In animals, clinically apparent disease is found primarily in dogs. Severe polyarthritis, fever and lameness in dogs are reported from the main endemic areas of North America: the New England States, and eastern parts of the United States; several cases of LB are also seen in California and the Midwest. Because of the difficulties in finding sufficient indicative clinical signs, additional information (detailed case history, laboratory testing for antibodies) is especially important to make the clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of LB.
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