The influence of surface microroughness and hydrophilicity of titanium on the up-regulation of TGFβ/BMP signalling in osteoblasts

Biomaterials. 2011 Jan;32(3):665-71. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.09.025. Epub 2010 Oct 8.


The topography of titanium implants has been identified as an important factor affecting the osseointegration of surgically placed dental implants. Further modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topology alone. This study aimed to determine possible molecular mechanisms to explain this clinical observation by examining differences in the whole genome mRNA expression profile of primary human osteoblasts in response to sand-blasted acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA) titanium surfaces. A decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the titanium surfaces (modSLA > SLA > control) correlated with an increase in expression of the osteogenic differentiation markers BSPII and osteocalcin. Pathway analysis demonstrated that a number of genes associated with the TGFβ‑BMP signalling cascade (BMP2, BMP6, SP1, CREBBP, RBL2, TBS3, ACVR1 and ZFYVE16) were significantly differentially up-regulated with culture on the modSLA surface. BMP2 was shown to have the largest fold change increase in expression which was subsequently confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Several other genes associated with the functionally important mechanisms relevant to bone healing, such as Wnt signalling (CTNNA1, FBX4, FZD6), angiogenesis (KDR), osteoclastogenesis (HSF2, MCL1) and proteolysis (HEXB, TPP1), were also differentially regulated. These results suggest that chemical (hydrophilic) modification of the SLA surface may result in more successful osseointegration through BMP signalling.

MeSH terms

  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Osseointegration
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Tripeptidyl-Peptidase 1
  • Up-Regulation*


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Tripeptidyl-Peptidase 1
  • Titanium
  • TPP1 protein, human