Problems, obstacles, and complications of metatarsal lengthening for the treatment of brachymetatarsia

Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2010 Oct;27(4):561-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2010.06.006. Epub 2010 Jul 22.


Metatarsal lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is a challenging procedure that is associated with various adverse results. This article presents and classifies adverse results arising from metatarsal lengthening. Our premise of classification is that not all adverse results that occur secondary to distraction osteogenesis of the metatarsal are true complications that affect the final outcome, but rather are problems and obstacles that present hurdles to completion of treatment. Our classification differentiates among problems, obstacles, and complications during metatarsal lengthening with external fixation. The cause of each adverse result is also discussed and clinical and surgical pearls to avoid these problems, obstacles, and complications are presented.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • External Fixators
  • Female
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Intraoperative Complications / etiology*
  • Intraoperative Complications / surgery
  • Male
  • Metatarsal Bones / abnormalities*
  • Metatarsal Bones / surgery*
  • Metatarsalgia / etiology
  • Metatarsalgia / surgery
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction / adverse effects*
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction / instrumentation
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction / methods
  • Pain, Postoperative / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / surgery
  • Reoperation
  • Risk Factors