Cardiac safety of conducted electrical devices in pigs and their effect on pacemaker function

Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Nov;29(9):1089-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2010.07.007. Epub 2010 Oct 12.


Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the cardiac safety of the Stinger S-200 Conducted Energy Weapon Device (CED) (Stinger Systems, Tampa, Fla) on a human-sized pig model and to test the effect of various commercially available CEDs, specifically the Stinger S-200, TASER M26 (Taser International, Scottsdale, Ariz), and TASER X26 on pacemaker function.

Methods: Two groups of pigs, divided based on weight as group 1 (n = 3, 67.3 ± 4.7 kg) and group 2 (n = 3, 89.3 ± 1.2 kg), were used. In protocol 1, the Stinger S-200 was applied in multiple different orientations to simulate possible field scenarios across the heart. In protocol 2, a single-chamber bipolar lead connected to a pacemaker was placed in the right ventricle of the pig, and different CEDs were applied to test the pacemaker function during CED application.

Results: In protocol 1, the S-200 was applied a total of 216 times in the 6 pigs, and neither episodes of ventricular fibrillation nor episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia were noted. In protocol 2, the CED discharges (1) were recognized by the pulse generator and sensed as either high-rate atrial or ventricular activity, (2) did not affect the native rhythm, (3) did not conduct down the lead systems to cause any extra systoles, and (4) had no effect on paced rhythm.

Conclusions: In this model, the application of the S-200 in various orientations across the heart did not result in any sustained abnormal cardiac rhythms. None of the tested CEDs adversely affected the functioning of the tested pacemaker. Stinger Systems has now replaced the S-200 with the S-200T with a different output.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology
  • Electroshock / adverse effects*
  • Pacemaker, Artificial*
  • Police
  • Safety
  • Swine
  • Weapons*