As the global HIV/AIDS pandemic nears the end of its third decade, the challenges of efficient mobilisation of funds and management of resources are increasingly prominent. The aids2031 project modelled long-term funding needs for HIV/AIDS in developing countries with a range of scenarios and substantial variation in costs: ranging from US$397 to $722 billion globally between 2009 and 2031, depending on policy choices adopted by governments and donors. We examine what these figures mean for individual developing countries, and estimate the proportion of HIV/AIDS funding that they and donors will provide. Scenarios for expanded HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and mitigation were analysed for 15 representative countries. We suggest that countries will move in increasingly divergent directions over the next 20 years; middle-income countries with a low burden of HIV/AIDS will gradually be able to take on the modest costs of their HIV/AIDS response, whereas low-income countries with a high burden of disease will remain reliant upon external support for their rapidly expanding costs. A small but important group of middle-income countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS (eg, South Africa) form a third category, in which rapid scale-up in the short term, matched by outside funds, could be phased down within 10 years assuming strategic investments are made for prevention and efficiency gains are made in treatment.
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