Introduction: The study determined the effect of seasons and meteorological variables on ovarian-menstrual function.
Methods: Women (N=129) living in Novosibirsk (55°N), Russia, provided data on normal menstrual cycles for over 1 year between 1999 and 2008. Of these, 18 together with 20 other healthy women were investigated once in winter and once in summer in 2006-2009. The investigated variables included serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin on day ∼ 7 of the menstrual cycle, ovary follicle size (by ultrasound) on day ∼ 12 and ovulation occurrence on subsequent days.
Results: In summer vs. winter, there was a trend towards increased FSH secretion, significantly larger ovarian follicle size, higher frequency of ovulation (97% vs. 71%) and a shorter menstrual cycle (by 0.9 days). LH and prolactin levels did not change. In all seasons combined, increased sunshine (data derived from local meteorological records) 2-3 days before the presumed ovulation day (calculated from the mean menstrual cycle) led to a shorter cycle length. Air/perceived temperature, atmospheric pressure, moon phase/light were not significant predictors.
Conclusions: Ovarian activity is greater in summer vs. winter in women living in a continental climate at temperate latitudes; sunshine is a factor that influences menstrual cycle.