Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction of fragrance allergens in water

Chemosphere. 2010 Dec;81(11):1378-85. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.09.028.


A method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the analysis of regulated fragrance allergens in water. Extraction conditions such as the type of solvent, extraction temperature, irradiation time, and salting-out effect were optimized using a multivariate approach. Compounds were extracted during 2 min in an acoustically emulsified media formed by 100 μL chloroform and 10 mL sample. The USAEME process provided an efficient and exhaustive extraction (enrichment factor ∼100) and, after centrifugation, the extract was ready for GC analysis. Validation was performed using spiked ultrapure water as well as other most complex matrices such as sewage water. Recoveries between 75% and 110% were generally obtained, and precision was characterized by RSD values <10% in most cases. The limits of detection (LODs) were at the sub-nanogram per millilitre level. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of allergens in several real samples including tap water, baby bathwater, recreational place water, public washing place water, and sewage water. The presence of some of the target compounds was confirmed in all the samples excluding tap water, demonstrating the ubiquity of this group of cosmetic and personal care products ingredients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Allergens / analysis
  • Allergens / chemistry
  • Allergens / isolation & purification*
  • Emulsions / chemistry
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • High-Energy Shock Waves*
  • Perfume / analysis
  • Perfume / chemistry*
  • Perfume / isolation & purification
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / isolation & purification*


  • Allergens
  • Emulsions
  • Perfume
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical