Background: Differences in trauma patients developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are described regarding etiology and risk factors associated. We aim to describe the differences in outcomes in trauma and nontrauma patients with VAP.
Methods: A prospective, observational study conducted in 27 intensive care units from nine European countries. We included patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for >48 hours who developed VAP. Logistic regression model was used to assess the factors independently associated with mortality in trauma patients with VAP.
Results: A total of 2,436 patients were evaluated; 465 developed VAP and of these 128 (27.5%) were trauma patients. Trauma patients were younger than nontrauma (45.3 ± 19.4 vs. 61.1 ± 16.7, p < 0.0001). Nontrauma had higher simplified acute physiology score II compared with trauma patients (45.5 ± 16.3 vs. 41.1 ± 15.2, p = 0.009). Most prevalent pathogens in trauma patients with early VAP were Enterobacteriaceae spp. (46.9% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.06) followed by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (30.6% vs. 13%, p = 0.03) and then Haemophilus influenzae (14.3% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.02), and the most prevalent pathogen in late VAP was Acinetobacter baumannii (12.2% vs. 44.4%, p < 0.0001). Mortality was higher in nontrauma patients than in trauma patients (42.6% vs. 17.2%, p < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95%CI = 2.14-5.88). A logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, severity of illness at intensive care unit admission, and sepsis-related organ failure assessment score at the day of VAP diagnosis confirmed that trauma was associated with a lower mortality compared with nontrauma patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.21-0.65).
Conclusions: Trauma patients developing VAP had different demographic characteristics and episodes of etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders, VAP episodes in trauma patients are associated with lower mortality when compared with nontrauma patients.