Previous studies in yeast have supported the view that post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundances may be more important than previously believed. Here we ask the question: "In a physiological regulatory process (the response of mammalian kidney cells to the hormone vasopressin), what fraction of the expressed proteome undergoes a change in abundance and what fraction of the regulated proteins have corresponding changes in mRNA levels?" In humans and other mammals, vasopressin fulfills a vital homeostatic role (viz. regulation of renal water excretion) by regulating the water channel aquaporin-2 in collecting duct cells. To address the question posed, we utilized large-scale quantitative protein mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) employing stable isotopic labeling in cultured mpkCCD cells ('SILAC') coupled with transcriptomic profiling using oligonucleotide expression arrays (Affymetrix). Preliminary studies analyzing two nominally identical control samples by SILAC LC-MS/MS yielded a relative S.D. of 13% (for ratios), establishing the precision of the SILAC approach in our hands. We quantified nearly 3000 proteins with nontargeted SILAC LC-MS/MS, comparing vasopressin- versus vehicle-treated samples. Of these proteins 786 of them were quantified in each of 3 experiments, allowing statistical analysis and 188 of these showed significant vasopressin-induced changes in abundance, including aquaporin-2 (20-fold increase). Among the proteins with statistically significant abundance changes, a large fraction (at least one-third) was found to lack changes in the corresponding mRNA species (despite sufficient statistical power), indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundance plays an important role in the vasopressin response. Bioinformatic analysis of the regulated proteins (versus all transcripts) shows enrichment of glutathione S-transferase isoforms as well as proteins involved in organization of the actin cytoskeleton. The latter suggests that long-term regulatory processes may contribute to actomyosin-dependent trafficking of the water channel aquaporin-2. The results provide impetus for increased focus on translational regulation and regulation of protein degradation in physiological control in mammalian epithelial cells.