Tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (TNFR1)-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is the most common autosomal-dominant autoinflammatory condition and is caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. TRAPS is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever typically lasting from 1 to 3 weeks; in addition to fever, common clinical features include mainly periorbital oedema, conjunctivitis, a migratory erythematous plaque simulating erysipela with underlying myalgia, and arthritis or arthralgia; serosal membrane inflammation is also possible. The identification of TNFRSF1A mutations as the genetic cause of TRAPS coincided with the wider use of biological agents in medicine and raised the possibility that blocking TNF could potentially represent the primary therapeutic goal in TRAPS, thus disclosing new treatment choices for this complex disease. In the past few years, isolated reports and case-series have been published suggesting that inhibition of TNF-alpha might represent a promising therapeutic approach in TRAPS. We present here our experience with etanercept in the treatment of patients affected with TRAPS, and we also add a review of the literature.